Purified water for golf courses

Large quantities of water are required for the irrigation of the grass on golf courses. In order to save water, the authorities in many locations have stipulated that only biologically treated water can be utilised, which, in view of the poor standards of purification prevailing in many treatment plants (residual contaminants, pathogens) can pose problems. Consequently, the pre-treated water envisaged for this purpose must also initially undergo biological post-treatment. Among the simplest and most efficient methods is the biofiltration of treatment plant effluents in BIOFILTERS equipped with adsorbing and porous LEVAPOR carriers. .


Fig. 1 Basic flow diagram of a biofilter

By means of an aerator, the water to be treated is fed, either from top to bottom or vice versa through a filter-bed equipped with adsorbing, porous LEVAPOR carriers. in a process lasting from between 2 to 4 hours. The organic and anorganic contaminants are then adsorbed by the biofilms on the carrier surfaces and simultaneously broken down.


Key features:

  1. Water depth – to improve the utilisation of air, a minimum depth of 1.50 m, ideally over 2.0 is recommended (towers, columns).
  2. Aeration: membrane air-diffuser, a round plate, or as > 1 m long candles.
  3. LEVAPOR carriers. – with biofilter approx. 60% of the volume. No clarifier is required for biofilters. When only 12-15% full, it becomes a fluidised bed, and post-treatment is then additionally required, with an approx. 2 to 3 hour retention time. This can be achieved by expanding the volume between the reactor and the outlet pipe, whereby a screen can also be used to improve the retention of the carrier.
  4. Golf courses: On the basis of a number of high DQO-outflow concentrations at Mallorcan treatment plants, the purified effluents envisaged for the irrigation of golf courses had to be additionally aerated for 3-4 hours. This could be achieved both in an expensive GRAF tank, and in a concrete tank or one made of PE.


Biofiltration as post-treatment

Below is a diagram of an anaerobic-aerobic small-scale plant based on a container design, as well as the schematized diagram of a fluidised bed reactor with a separate clarifier. This must be sufficient for a qualified engineer to design a plant in which the sludge retention can be effected with or without a pump..


Fig. 2 Biofiltration as post-treatment stage with integrated waste-gas treatment


Fig. 3 Anaerobic-aerobic small-scale, container-design plant


Fig. 4 Schematic diagram of aerobic small-scale reactor